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                汽車零部件的行業發展

                發布時間:2018-08-27

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                汽車零部件的行業發展

                  汽車零部件作為汽車工業的基礎,是支撐汽車工業持續健康發展的必要因素。特別是當前汽車行業正在轟轟烈烈、如火如荼開展的自主開發與創新,更需要一個強大的零部件體系作支撐。整車自主品牌與技術創新需要零部件作基礎,零部件的自主創新又對整車產業的發展產生強大推動力,他們是相互影響、相互作用的,沒有整車的自主品牌,強大零部件體系的研發創新能力難以迸發,沒有強大零部件體系的支撐,自主品牌的做大作強將難以為繼。

                  2005年1-12月,中國全部汽車零部件及配件制造企業實現累計工業總產值383,800,952千元,比上年同期增長18.67%;實現累計產品銷售收入375,265,815千元,比上年同期增長20.21%;實現累計利潤總額為21,462,002千元,比上年同期降低9.09%。

                  2006年1-12月,中國全部汽車零部件及配件制造企業實現累計工業總產值539,704,996千元,比上年同期增長34.35%;實現累計產品銷售收入527,234,933千元,比上年同期增長34.71%;實現累計利潤總額為32,605,652千元,比上年同期增長46.79%;截止到2006年12月底,全行業規模以上企業數量為6,142家。

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                  2007年1-11月,中國全部汽車零部件及配件制造企業實現累計工業總產值683,525,503千元,比上年同期增長了37.34%;實現累計產品銷售收入663,529,269千元,比上年同期增長了37.45%;實現累計利潤總額48,487,363千元,比上年同期增長了68.61%;截至2007年11月底,全行業規模以上企業數量為7,171家。

                  從2010年1-10月份的行業運行情況看,汽車零部件行業利潤總額仍在增長,但增速放緩;進出口額也雙雙增長,但進口產品以變速箱及發動機零件等高利潤、高附加值、高科技的產品為主,出口產品以輪胎、電子儀器儀表等進入壁壘低、利潤薄的勞動密集型和資源消耗型為主。下游整車行業在一定時期產能過剩,雖然2010年在政府的各項刺激政策下出現了非常規的高速增長,但2011年產銷增速放緩、產能過剩壓力加大,受其影響,零部件行業下半年可能會承受較大利潤的壓力。行業面臨的主要問題上下游兩頭受擠,行業面臨雙重壓力零部件行業是兩頭受擠的行業,對上下游缺乏議價能力。上游原材料主要是鋼材、橡膠、塑料、織物等,其價格最終由鋼鐵、石油、天然橡膠等大宗商品價格決定,汽車零部件企業只能通過對上游商品價格走勢的判斷規避風險。同時,下游整車制造商多為大企業大集團,在與零部件廠商的利益博弈中處于強勢地位,談判能力強,能將成本壓力轉嫁給汽車零部件行業,因此,零部件實際上處于兩頭受擠的“三明治”夾心地位。

                  2011年,中國汽車零部件銷售產值已突破2萬億元人民幣,未來幾年仍將保持20%以上的增幅。預計到2015年中國汽配行業規模產值可達到2.5萬億元人民幣。2002年以來,中國汽車產銷量保持了近10年的高速增長,汽車工業已發展成為中國經濟的支柱產業。2009年,中國汽車產銷雙雙突破1300萬輛,躍居全球第一,到2011年,中國汽車產銷突破1900萬輛,連續3年位居全球第一。

                  隨著汽車零部件行業競爭的不斷加劇,大型汽車零部件企業間并購整合與資本運作日趨頻繁,國內知名的汽車零部件生產企業愈來愈重視對行業市場的研究,特別是對企業發展環境和客戶需求趨勢變化的深入研究。正因為如此,一大批國內知名的汽車零部件品牌迅速崛起,逐漸成為汽車零部件行業中的翹楚,詳見《中國汽車零部件制造行業深度市場調研與投資前景預測分析報告》!

                汽車零部件物流箱


                  國產零部件主要用于自主品牌汽車,市場占有率低商務部的數據顯示,外資控制了汽車零部件的絕大部分市場份額,國產零部件銷售收入僅占全行業的20%-25%,擁有外資背景的汽車零部件廠商占整個行業的75%以上,在這些外資供應商中,獨資企業占55%,中外合資企業占45%,本土零部件主要應用于自主品牌汽車,市場占有率低。在汽車電子和發動機零部件等高科技含量領域,外資市場份額高達90%,其中,汽車的電噴系統、發動機管理系統、ABS和安全氣囊、自動變速器等核心零部件的產量中,外資企業所占比例分別是99%、99%和91%、69%。

                  汽車零部件生產企業脫離整車企業并形成專業化零部件集團,正成為一種全球化趨勢。國際知名的汽車及零部件企業,幾乎都在中國建立了合資或獨資企業,引進技術合資企業已超過1000家。國內一批科技含量高、效益好、規模大的汽車及零部件企業逐步成長起來。隨著國際上汽車行業開始實行零部件“全球化采購”策略及國際跨國汽車企業推行本土化策略,國內市場將出現巨大的零部件配件缺口。到2010年,中國汽車零部件國內產值將達到7000億元左右。

                  在一定時期,雖然全球經濟整體下滑,但根據近四到五年的實際采購實踐,中國采購的成果并不像大量公司預測的那樣樂觀,幾乎80%以上的公司沒有達到他們采購量和采購降成本的目標。而隨著人民幣升值和出口退稅率的下降,中國采購面臨的壓力更大,國際采購商已經將目光同時轉移到越南、印度、泰國、澳大利亞等。從以上看來,中國的汽車零部件產業在當前的金融危機下仍將加速增長。

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